Kidney Failure: Symptoms, Causes, Diet and Treatment

Kidney failure occurs when the kidneys suddenly can no longer perform their function. Normally, the kidneys filter byproducts (metabolic wastes) and maintain normal levels of water, salt and minerals (electrolytes) in the blood. When kidneys not longer work properly, byproducts of metabolism, fluids and electrolytes build up in the body, leading to a life threatening situation.

From the outset, must be said that renal impairment is of two types: acute (it produces suddenly and rapidly) and chronic (occurring slowly over a longer period of time). And when we refer to these two types of kidney failure, we mean two different things.

Kidney failure symptoms

Renal failure often causes no visible symptoms If the patient is in the hospital, investigations performed for other conditions can detect certain kidney damages. When symptoms occur, they may include:

• swelling of feet and legs
• small urine production or lack of urine
• sensation of thirst and dry mouth
• tachycardia (rapid heart beat)
• feeling of dizziness when standing
• lack of appetite, nausea and vomiting
• confusion, anxiety, restlessness or drowsiness
• pain on one side, just below the rib cage and up to the waist (flank pain)

Symptoms may help determine the type of kidney failure:

– Severe dehydration, a common cause of prerenal acute renal failure can cause thirst, lack of dexterity (in coordination) or light-headedness and a rapid, weak pulse.

– An obstruction of the urinary tract, causing postrenal acute renal failure may cause kidney pain, blood in the urine (hematuria) or reduced urination.

– Uremic syndrome (uremia) is a serious complication of prolonged and severe acute renal failure. It can cause severe dizziness, confusion, seizures, irregular heartbeat, and fluid accumulation in the lungs (pulmonary edema).

Kidney Failure Causes

The main factors that can cause acute renal failure are:

• Lowering blood volume – by hemorrhage
• Severe vomiting
• Frequent urination
• Heart diseases

A number of specific diseases and conditions can also determine the kidneys to stop working normally. Patients may have acute renal failure if they:

• Lost a lot of blood. This may occur because of a serious injury or major surgery. He was dehydrated because of vomiting or due to the excess of diuretics
• Has a serious heart condition, like heart failure, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia (abnormal heart rhythm), higher blood pressure values, endocarditis, valvular heart disease or cardiac tamponade
• Has a condition that can affect the kidneys or liver, such as nephrotic syndrome, liver cirrhosis, lupus or another disease that causes inflammation of blood vessels (vasculitis.
• Has another serious problem such as severe malnutrition, burns, serious harm or a serious infection (sepsis)
• Used drugs that may affect the kidneys including antibiotics
• Has an abrupt obstruction at some level on urinary tract that blocks urine – kidney stones, tumors, urinary tract injury or enlarged prostate can cause urine blocks.

Dietary changes

To avoid worsening kidney disease, it is good to know what dietary changes you need to make.

1. Limit the amount of protein to reduce the level of toxins in the blood and help the kidneys to function within normal parameters. In general, protein-rich foods are red meat and eggs.
2. Eat fewer foods high in phosphorus, such as peas, beans, soy or dairy products. In renal failure, kidneys can not remove phosphorus excess of the body, which directly affects bone health.
3. Reduce daily sodium amount of salt by avoiding certain foods such as meat, preserves or pickles. An increased amount of sodium not only affects the kidney activity, but can also cause hypertension.

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